Network and Networking

Introduction to Network

Network: The connectivity of two or more entities /computers with each other through some communication media for the purpose of sharing resources (Hardware & Software) is called Network.


Networking is basically the concept of designing a network, i.e. how networking device will communicate with each other, how they will share resources (Hardware & Software), which physical & Logical Typologies will be used, which type of medium will be used (Wired/Wireless), which protocols will be used. Overall designing, installation & configuration of a network is called networking

Types of network

The two basic types of networks include:

Local area network (LAN)

Wide area network (WAN)

There are also some subtypes of these which are

  • Metropolitan area networks (man)
  • Wireless LAN (WLAN)
  • Wireless Wan (WWAN)

Local Area Network

The network in a single building or some group of buildings is called a local area network. Generally, we sat that the network which is established relatively small Area is called Local Area Network. For example the network in a lab, school, or Building. In a typical LAN configuration, one computer is designated as the file server. It stores all of the software that controls the network, as well as the software that can be shared by the computers attached to the network. All the computers connected to the file server are called workstations. The workstations are ordinary computers and may they have additional software on their own hard disk. You can link this computer through a cable that is used to connect the network interface cards in each computer. You can also use a wireless LAN card.

Advantages of LAN (Local Area Network)

  • Local Area Network reduces the overall cost of management by sharing peripheral devices like printers.
  • In Local Area Network, all workstations do not necessarily need their own hard disk or
  • CD- ROM drives which make them cheaper to buy than stand-alone PCs.
  • User can save their work centrally on the networks file server and open and use it any time form any workstation.
  • Users can communicate with each other and share the data.
  • One copy of each application package such as a word processor, spreadsheet, etc. It can be loaded onto the file and shared by all users. When a new version comes out, it only has to be loaded onto the server instead of onto every workstation.

Disadvantages of connecting computers in a LAN

  • Special security measures are needed to stop users from using programs and data that they should not have access to;
  • Networks are difficult to set up and need to be maintained by skilled technicians.
  • If the file server develops a serious fault, all the users are affected, rather than just one user in the case of a stand-alone machine.

Wide Area Network

Wide area networks (WANs) extent to larger geographic areas. We say the collection of more than one network on a relatively large area is called Wide Area Network.  A computer connected to a wide-area network through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through the satellites. One of the most popular examples of wide Area network is the internet.

Advantages of WAN (Wide Area Network)

  • Two great advantages of wan are allowing secure and fast data transmission between the different nodes in the network.
  • Big organizations and companies, which have several branches all over the world, are the ones who greatly benefit from WANs.
  • Most of the time, public telecommunications companies in different countries manage to control and maintain WANs. They also provide wan users with various services such as leased lines.
  • By sitting at one city or country the user can share the resources of the network in another city or country. For example, the user can print the document or send an instant message by just one click. The users can use online software for communication and can work at the same time on the server database.

Types of Wide Area Network ( WAN )

Enterprise network

The connection between different company office branches or different divisions is called the enterprise network. The purpose of an enterprise network is to provide security by stopping isolated users and workgroups and should be able to maintain and provide performance and reliability.

Global network

The Wide Area Network which is established in several countries and includes many types of organizations and individuals are called a global network. For example the internet.

Metropolitan Area Network   (MAN)

A network which spared on grater aria from local aria but less form

Wide Area Network.  We also say that the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network is called Metropolitan Area Network.

The man provides different services which are the following:

ISDN  (Integrated Service Digital Network)