Third Generation of Computer 1959-1971
The period of the third generation was from 1965-1971. The computers of the third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) instead of transistors. A single IC has numerous transistors, resistors, and capacitors alongside the related circuitry.
The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This improvement made computers smaller in size, reliable, and effective. In this generation, remote processing, time-sharing, multiprogramming operating system (OS) were used. High-level languages (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, and so forth) were used during this generation.
Transistors were made smaller in size and placed on silicon chips
It increased the speed and efficiency of computers
It can solve many problems at a time
The Concept of Integrated Circuit (IC) made a major breakthrough to improve the quality as well as the performance of the computers.
An integrated circuit is a compact electronic circuit containing hundreds of transistors and other electronic components, which are packed on a thin piece of semiconductor material known as IC chip.
This generation made possible the invention of the mainframe computers.
Features of the third generation computers
IC technology made the size of the computer still smaller.
These computers could do the fast calculation (i.e.in nanoseconds)
The cost of computers reduced further.
The capacity to hold data and information was more due to improved secondary storage devices.
The main features of third generation are −
• IC used
• More dependable in contrast with past two generations
• Smaller size
• Generated less warmth
• Lesser maintenance
• AC required
• Consumed lesser electricity
• Supported high level language
A few computers of this generation were −
• IBM-360 series
• Honeywell-6000 series
• PDP (Personal Data Processor)
Advantage and Disadvantages of Third Generation Computers
As the third-generation computers were made with the assistance of an integrated circuit that led to various advantages and limitations of the computer world and the users. For instance, contrasting with the past two-generation computer, the third-generation computers were reliably good in quality and execution, which means they were more reliable. Additionally, they produced less warmth and consumed less energy. The disadvantage of the third-generation computers was that they actually required air conditioning even if they produced less warmth.
There are some different instances of advantages of the computers made in the third generation included: when contrasted with past two generations of computers, third generation computers were quick in speed (fast in calculating data), adaptable to an extent, less expensive in cost, higher storage capacity, just as more precise. Notwithstanding, the producing and making the process of the third generation of computers was more costly; on the grounds that it required an excess of measure of cash for the manufacturing of Integrated Circuit chips. Particularly, they were costly for manufacturers of the third generation of computers. A few points of advantages and disadvantages of computer made in the third generation are given below:
|These computers required less space as they were smaller in size contrasting with the two past generations of computers.|
As the integrated circuit innovation used to make these computers made computers more dependable.
They didn’t require much energy during tasks; additionally, they produced less warmth.
They were generally used because of portable and offered better speed.
These computers used a fan for head release and didn’t need manual computations.
Because of rare hardware failure, the maintenance cost was low.
They are used for general purposes and have a high storage capacity to hold data.
3rd generation computers more accurate.
Besides, the way toward taking input had been changed in the third generation of computers. They changed the process to take input as used a mouse and console as opposed to punch cards.
|Probably the biggest limitations of third-generation computers was that they actually required cooling even of whether they produced less warmth.|
The manufacturing of the IC chip was conceivable to finish by highly sophisticated innovation.
For third generation computers, formal training was needed to use.
Likewise, keeping up integrated circuit chips isn’t easy.