An Introduction to Data Communication and its Types

What is analog and digital data communication

Analog data communication

Transfer of data in the form of analog signal / in the form of continuous waves.

i.e. Telephone

Digital data communication

Transfer of data in the form of one digital signal in the form of (0&1)

I.e. Data communication b/w two computer

Define the different components of data communication?

A data communication system consists of a different component. These component works together to transfer the data from one place to another place:

Component of data communication

. Message

. Sender

. Receiver

. Communication Channel

. Encoder and Decoder

Message :

The message is the information or data to be communicated.

Message can be text, numbers, pictures, sound, video or any combination of these.


The sender is the device that sends the data.

It is also called a source or transmitter.

It can be a computer, telephone, camera or so on


The receiver is the device that receives the data.

It is also called a destination or sink.

It can be a computer, telephone, TV or so on.

Communication Medium:

It is a path by which data travels from sender to receiver.

It is a path by which data travels from sender to receiver.

There are two types of communication channels.

. Guided Media (cables-twisted pair, coaxial, fiber optic)

. Unguided Media (Microwave, satellite)

Encoder Converts digital signal to a form that can pass through the transmission medium.

Decoder converts signal from encoded form to a digital form understandable for the receiver.

Sender and receiver cannot communicate without encoder and decoder.

  • Central processing
  • Control program
  • Terminal
  • Modems
  • Data communication modes
  • Data communication media
  • Networking

Central computer

The computer that manages the transmission of data between different computers is called a central computer. A large computer such as mainframe, mini/advanced microcomputer is used as a central computer. The central computer controls the work of the data communication system. The central computer is also called a server.

Control programs

Control program flow data from one computer to another. These programs include the operating system and other software that support data communication. Control program send and receive data to different computer


The terminal is a basic communication unit. It is used to send and receive the data. It generally consists of a keyboard & monitor. The keyboard is used to input data and monitor work as an output unit. Many terminals are connected with the central computer through terminal many people can work on a single computer on a time.


The modem is the abbreviation of a modulator? Demodulator. It is a hardware device. by its computer system to use a telephone line or a cable service to send the information to another computer. Information in the computer system is in digital format.

Information through the telephone line is sending in the form of an analog signal. Without a modem, we cannot connect to the internet. It is necessary for both the sender and the receiver computer. The modem of the sender computer converts the information into analog form. This process is called modulation. Analog information travels on telephone lines and reached the destination. Its modem converts the analog information into digital format. This process is called demodulation.

Data communication transmission modes

The way of data sending from place to another place via communication media is called data communication or data transmission. There are four modes or ways of or transmitting data.

1)         simple 2)         duplex  3)       asynchronous 4)         synchronous

Data communication media

When all the desktop computers, printers, and other devices are supplied with their network interfaces, they need something to connect their connections and usually, this media is the cable. We say that anything which helps to send the information from one place to another place is called communication media


The term network is defined as the interconnection of several different stations by communication links or a network is the logical extension of the data communication system. Or the integration of computers via data communication is referred to as a computer network. Or a simple network formed by connecting several terminals with a central time-shared computer in remote areas by telephone lines or any other medium.

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salman khan

Written by worldofitech


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