C++ Data Types: In this tutorial, we will find out about fundamental data types, for example, int, float, char, and so forth in C++ programming with the help of examples.
In C++, data types are declarations for variables. This decides the sort and size of data related to variables. For instance,
int age = 13;
Here, age is a variable of type int. Meaning, the variable can only store integers of either 2 or 4 bytes.
C++ Fundamental Data Types
The table below shows the fundamental data types, their meaning, and their sizes (in bytes):
|Data Type||Meaning||Size (in Bytes)|
|int||Integer||2 or 4|
Now, let us discuss these fundamental data types in more detail.
1. C++ int
The int keyword is used to indicate integers.
Its size is usually 4 bytes. Meaning, it can store values from -2147483648 to 2147483647.
int salary = 85000;
2. C++ float and double
float and double are used to store floating-point numbers (decimals and exponentials).
The size of float is 4 bytes and the size of double is 8 bytes. Hence, double has two times the precision of float. To learn more, visit C++ float and double.
float area = 64.74; double volume = 134.64534;
As referenced over, these two data types are likewise used for exponentials. For instance,
double distance = 45E12 // 45E12 is equal to 45*10^12
3. C++ char
Keyword char is used for characters.
Its size is 1 byte.
Characters in C++ are enclosed inside single quotes ‘ ‘.
char test = 'h';
4. C++ wchar_t
Wide character wchar_t is similar to the char data type, except its size is 2 bytes instead of 1.
It is used to represent characters that require more memory to represent them than a single char.
wchar_t test = L'ם' // storing Hebrew character;
Notice the letter L before the quotation marks.
Note: There are also two other fixed-size character types char16_t and char32_t introduced in C++11.
5. C++ bool
The bool data type has one of two potential values: true or false.
Booleans are used in contingent proclamations and loops (which we will learn in later chapters).
bool cond = false;
6. C++ void
The void catchphrase shows a nonappearance of data. It signifies “nothing” or “no value”.
We will use void when we find out about functions and pointers.
Note: We can’t declare variables of the void type.
C++ Type Modifiers
We can further modify some of the fundamental data types by using type modifiers. There are 4 sort modifiers in C++. They are:
We can modify the following data types with the above modifiers:
C++ Modified Data Types List
|Data Type||Size (in Bytes)||Meaning|
|signed int||4||used for integers (equivalent to int)|
|unsigned int||4||can only store positive integers|
|short||2||used for small integers (range -32768 to 32767)|
|long||at least 4||used for large integers (equivalent to long int)|
|unsigned long||4||used for large positive integers or 0 (equivalent to unsigned long int)|
|long long||8||used for very large integers (equivalent to long long int).|
|unsigned long long||8||used for very large positive integers or 0 (equivalent to unsigned long long int)|
|long double||8||used for large floating-point numbers|
|signed char||1||used for characters (guaranteed range -127 to 127)|
|unsigned char||1||used for characters (range 0 to 255)|
Let’s see a few examples.
long b = 4523232; long int c = 2345342; long double d = 233434.56343; short d = 3434233; // Error! out of range unsigned int a = -5; // Error! can only store positive numbers or 0
Derived Data Types
Data types that are derived from essential data types are inferred types. For instance: arrays, pointers, work types, structures, and so forth.
We will learn about these derived data types in later tutorials.
Please feel free to give your comment if you face any difficulty here.