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C++ Data Types

C++ Data Types
C++ Data Types

C++ Data Types: In this tutorial, we will find out about fundamental data types, for example, int, float, char, and so forth in C++ programming with the help of examples.

In C++, data types are declarations for variables. This decides the sort and size of data related to variables. For instance,

int age = 13;

Here, age is a variable of type int. Meaning, the variable can only store integers of either 2 or 4 bytes.

C++ Fundamental Data Types

The table below shows the fundamental data types, their meaning, and their sizes (in bytes):

Data TypeMeaningSize (in Bytes)
intInteger2 or 4
doubleDouble Floating-point8
wchar_tWide Character2

Now, let us discuss these fundamental data types in more detail.

1. C++ int

The int keyword is used to indicate integers.
Its size is usually 4 bytes. Meaning, it can store values from -2147483648 to 2147483647.
For example,

int salary = 85000;

2. C++ float and double

float and double are used to store floating-point numbers (decimals and exponentials).
The size of float is 4 bytes and the size of double is 8 bytes. Hence, double has two times the precision of float. To learn more, visit C++ float and double.
For example,

float area = 64.74;
double volume = 134.64534;

As referenced over, these two data types are likewise used for exponentials. For instance,

double distance = 45E12    // 45E12 is equal to 45*10^12

3. C++ char

Keyword char is used for characters.
Its size is 1 byte.
Characters in C++ are enclosed inside single quotes ‘ ‘.
For example,

char test = 'h';

4. C++ wchar_t

Wide character wchar_t is similar to the char data type, except its size is 2 bytes instead of 1.
It is used to represent characters that require more memory to represent them than a single char.
For example,

wchar_t test = L'ם'  // storing Hebrew character;

Notice the letter L before the quotation marks.

Note: There are also two other fixed-size character types char16_t and char32_t introduced in C++11.

5. C++ bool

The bool data type has one of two potential values: true or false.

Booleans are used in contingent proclamations and loops (which we will learn in later chapters).

For instance,

bool cond = false;

6. C++ void

The void catchphrase shows a nonappearance of data. It signifies “nothing” or “no value”.

We will use void when we find out about functions and pointers.

Note: We can’t declare variables of the void type.

C++ Type Modifiers

We can further modify some of the fundamental data types by using type modifiers. There are 4 sort modifiers in C++. They are:

  1. signed
  2. unsigned
  3. short
  4. long

We can modify the following data types with the above modifiers:


C++ Modified Data Types List

Data TypeSize (in Bytes)Meaning
signed int4used for integers (equivalent to int)
unsigned int4can only store positive integers
short2used for small integers (range -32768 to 32767)
longat least 4used for large integers (equivalent to long int)
unsigned long4used for large positive integers or 0 (equivalent to unsigned long int)
long long8used for very large integers (equivalent to long long int).
unsigned long long8used for very large positive integers or 0 (equivalent to unsigned long long int)
long double8used for large floating-point numbers
signed char1used for characters (guaranteed range -127 to 127)
unsigned char1used for characters (range 0 to 255)

Let’s see a few examples.

long b = 4523232;
long int c = 2345342;
long double d = 233434.56343;
short d = 3434233; // Error! out of range
unsigned int a = -5;    // Error! can only store positive numbers or 0

Derived Data Types

Data types that are derived from essential data types are inferred types. For instance: arrays, pointers, work types, structures, and so forth.

We will learn about these derived data types in later tutorials.

Please feel free to give your comment if you face any difficulty here.

salman khan

Written by worldofitech

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