# C Programming Operators In this tutorial, you will find out about various operators in C programming with the help of an example.

An operator is a symbol that works on a worth or a variable. For instance: + is an operator to perform addition.

C has a wide range of operators to perform different operations.

Contents

## C Arithmetic Operators

An arithmetic operator performs mathematical operations, for example, expansion, deduction, augmentation, division, and so on numerical qualities (constants and variables).

## Example 1: Arithmetic Operators

```// Working of arithmetic operators
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a = 9,b = 4, c;

c = a+b;
printf("a+b = %d \n",c);
c = a-b;
printf("a-b = %d \n",c);
c = a*b;
printf("a*b = %d \n",c);
c = a/b;
printf("a/b = %d \n",c);
c = a%b;
printf("Remainder when a divided by b = %d \n",c);

return 0;
}```
Output
```a+b = 13
a-b = 5
a*b = 36
a/b = 2
Remainder when a divided by b=1```

The operators +, – and * computes addition, subtraction, and multiplication respectively as you might have expected.

In normal calculation, 9/4 = 2.25. However, the output is 2 in the program.

It is because both the variables a and b are integers. Hence, the output is also an integer. The compiler neglects the term after the decimal point and shows answer 2 instead of 2.25.

The modulo operator % computes the remainder. When a=9 is divided by b=4, the remainder is 1. The % operator can only be used with integers.

Suppose a = 5.0, b = 2.0, c = 5 and d = 2. Then in C programming,

```// Either one of the operands is a floating-point number
a/b = 2.5
a/d = 2.5
c/b = 2.5

// Both operands are integers
c/d = 2```

## C Increment and Decrement Operators

C programming has two operators increment ++ and decrement – to change the value of an operand (constant or variable) by 1.

Increment ++ expands the incentive by 1 while decrement – diminishes the incentive by 1. These two operators are unary operators, meaning they only operate on a single operand.

## Example 2: Increment and Decrement Operators

``````// Working of increment and decrement operators
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a = 10, b = 100;
float c = 10.5, d = 100.5;

printf("++a = %d \n", ++a);
printf("--b = %d \n", --b);
printf("++c = %f \n", ++c);
printf("--d = %f \n", --d);

return 0;
}``````

Output

```++a = 11
--b = 99
++c = 11.500000
++d = 99.500000```

Here, the operators ++ and — are used as prefixes. These two operators can also be used as postfixes like a++ and a–.

## C Assignment Operators

An assignment operator is used for assigning a value to a variable. The most common assignment operator is =

 Operator Example Same as = a = b a = b += a += b a = a+b -= a -= b a = a-b *= a *= b a = a*b /= a /= b a = a/b %= a %= b a = a%b

## Example 3: Assignment Operators

``````// Working of assignment operators
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a = 5, c;

c = a;      // c is 5
printf("c = %d\n", c);
c += a;     // c is 10
printf("c = %d\n", c);
c -= a;     // c is 5
printf("c = %d\n", c);
c *= a;     // c is 25
printf("c = %d\n", c);
c /= a;     // c is 5
printf("c = %d\n", c);
c %= a;     // c = 0
printf("c = %d\n", c);

return 0;
}``````

Output

```c = 5
c = 10
c = 5
c = 25
c = 5
c = 0```

## C Relational Operators

A relational operator checks the relationship between the two operands. If the relation is valid, it returns 1; if the relation is false, it returns value 0.

 Operator Meaning of Operator Example == Equal to 5 == 3 is evaluated to 0 > Greater than 5 > 3 is evaluated to 1 < Less than 5 < 3 is evaluated to 0 != Not equal to 5 != 3 is evaluated to 1 >= Greater than or equal to 5 >= 3 is evaluated to 1 <= Less than or equal to 5 <= 3 is evaluated to 0

## Example 4: Relational Operators

``````// Working of relational operators
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a = 5, b = 5, c = 10;

printf("%d == %d is %d \n", a, b, a == b);
printf("%d == %d is %d \n", a, c, a == c);
printf("%d > %d is %d \n", a, b, a > b);
printf("%d > %d is %d \n", a, c, a > c);
printf("%d < %d is %d \n", a, b, a < b);
printf("%d < %d is %d \n", a, c, a < c);
printf("%d != %d is %d \n", a, b, a != b);
printf("%d != %d is %d \n", a, c, a != c);
printf("%d >= %d is %d \n", a, b, a >= b);
printf("%d >= %d is %d \n", a, c, a >= c);
printf("%d <= %d is %d \n", a, b, a <= b);
printf("%d <= %d is %d \n", a, c, a <= c);

return 0;
}``````

Output

```5 == 5 is 1
5 == 10 is 0
5 > 5 is 0
5 > 10 is 0
5 < 5 is 0
5 < 10 is 1
5 != 5 is 0
5 != 10 is 1
5 >= 5 is 1
5 >= 10 is 0
5 <= 5 is 1
5 <= 10 is 1 ```

## C Logical Operators

An expression containing a logical operator returns either 0 or 1 depending upon whether expression results true or false. Logical operators are commonly used in decision making in C programming.

 Operator Meaning Example && Logical AND. True only if all operands are true If c = 5 and d = 2 then, expression ((c==5) && (d>5)) equals to 0. || Logical OR. True only if either one operand is true If c = 5 and d = 2 then, expression ((c==5) || (d>5)) equals to 1. ! Logical NOT. True only if the operand is 0 If c = 5 then, expression !(c==5) equals to 0.

## Example 5: Logical Operators

``````// Working of logical operators

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a = 5, b = 5, c = 10, result;

result = (a == b) && (c > b);
printf("(a == b) && (c > b) is %d \n", result);
result = (a == b) && (c < b);
printf("(a == b) && (c < b) is %d \n", result);
result = (a == b) || (c < b);
printf("(a == b) || (c < b) is %d \n", result);
result = (a != b) || (c < b);
printf("(a != b) || (c < b) is %d \n", result);
result = !(a != b);
printf("!(a == b) is %d \n", result);
result = !(a == b);
printf("!(a == b) is %d \n", result);

return 0;
}``````

Output

```(a == b) && (c > b) is 1
(a == b) && (c < b) is 0
(a == b) || (c < b) is 1
(a != b) || (c < b) is 0
!(a != b) is 1
!(a == b) is 0 ```

Explanation of logical operator program

(a == b) && (c > 5) evaluates to 1 because both operands (a == b) and (c > b) is 1 (true).
(a == b) && (c < b) evaluates to 0 because operand (c < b) is 0 (false).
(a == b) || (c < b) evaluates to 1 because (a = b) is 1 (true).
(a != b) || (c < b) evaluates to 0 because both operand (a != b) and (c < b) are 0 (false).
!(a != b) evaluates to 1 because operand (a != b) is 0 (false). Hence, !(a != b) is 1 (true).
!(a == b) evaluates to 0 because (a == b) is 1 (true). Hence, !(a == b) is 0 (false).

## C Bitwise Operators

During computation, mathematical operations like: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and so on are changed over to bit-level which makes handling quicker and saves power.

Bitwise administrators are utilized in C programming to perform bit-level operations.

 Operators Meaning of operators & Bitwise AND | Bitwise OR ^ Bitwise exclusive OR ~ Bitwise complement << Shift left >> Shift right

## Comma Operator

Comma operators are used to linking related expressions together. For example:

``int a, c = 5, d;``

## The sizeof operator

The sizeof is a unary operator that returns the size of data (constants, variables, array, structure, etc).

## Example 6: sizeof Operator

``````#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a;
float b;
double c;
char d;
printf("Size of int=%lu bytes\n",sizeof(a));
printf("Size of float=%lu bytes\n",sizeof(b));
printf("Size of double=%lu bytes\n",sizeof(c));
printf("Size of char=%lu byte\n",sizeof(d));

return 0;
}``````

Output

```Size of int = 4 bytes
Size of float = 4 bytes
Size of double = 8 bytes
Size of char = 1 byte
```

Other operators such as ternary operator ?:, reference operator &, dereference operator * and member selection operator -> will be discussed in later tutorials.

Please feel free to give your comment if you face any difficulty here.

For more Articles click on the below link.

https://www.worldofitech.com/c-introduction/ ### C Input/Output: printf() and scanf() ### C Introduction Examples  