The MVC is an architectural pattern that separates an application into three fundamental logical segments Model, View, And Controller.

Every one of these segments has its own part in a Project.

MVC model was first presented in 1987 in the Smalltalk Programming language.

Over 80% of all web application frameworks depend on Model View Controller architecture.

In this MVC tutorial, you will learn more about MVC basics-

What is MVC Framework?

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework is an architectural example that separates an application into three primary logical components Model, View, and Controller. Thus the abbreviation MVC. Each architecture component is worked to deal with explicit development part of an application. MVC separates the business logic and presentation layer from each other. It was generally used for desktop graphical UIs (GUIs). These days, MVC architecture in web innovation has become popular for designing web applications just as mobile applications.

History of MVC

• Model-View-Controller architecture previously discussed in 1979 by Trygve Reenskaug

• Model-View-Controller model was first presented in 1987 in the Smalltalk programming language.

• MVC was first time acknowledged as a general concept, in a 1988 article

• In the new time, MVC pattern is broadly used in modern web applications

Features of MVC

• Easy and frictionless testability. Highly testable, extensible and pluggable framework

• To design a web application design using the Model-View-Controller design, it offers full authority over your HTML just as your URLs

• Leverage existing highlights given by ASP.NET, JSP, Django, and so on

• Clear separation of logic: Model, View, Controller. Separation of application assignments viz. business logic, Ul logic, and input logic

• URL Routing for SEO Friendly URLs. Amazing URL-mapping for fathomable and accessible URLs

• Supports for Test Driven Development (TDD)

MVC Architecture

Here is the detailed architecture of MVC framework:

Three significant MVC the segments are:

• Model: It incorporates all the data and its connected logic

• View: Present data to the user or handles user interaction

• Controller: An interface among Model and View segments

Let’s see each other this component in detail:


A View is that piece of the application that addresses the introduction of data.

Views are created by the data gathered from the model data. A view demands the model to give data so it resets the output show to the user.

The view additionally addresses the information from chats, diagrams, and table. For instance, any client view will incorporate all the UI parts like text boxes, drop downs, and so forth


The Controller is that piece of the application that handles the client interaction. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the client, informing model and the view to change as proper.

A Controller send’s orders to the model to refresh it’s anything but., a particular archive). The controller additionally sends commands to its related view to change the view’s show (For instance scrolling a particular document).


The model component stores data and its related logic. It addresses information that is being moved between controller segments or some other related business logic. For instance, a Controller item will recover the client information from the database. It controls information and send back to the database or use it to deliver a similar information.

It reacts to the solicitation from the views and furthermore reacts to instructions from the controller to refresh itself. It is likewise the most minimal level of the example which is answerable for keeping up with data.

MVC Examples

Let’s see Model View Controller example from daily life:

Example 1:

• Let’s assume you go to a restaurant. You won’t go to the kitchen and get ready food which you can definitely do at your home. Instead, you simply go there and wait for the waiter to come on.

• Now the waiter comes to you, and you simply order the food. The waiter doesn’t have the foggiest idea what your identity is and what you need he just recorded the detail of your food order.

• Then, the waiter moves to the kitchen. In the kitchen server not set up your food.

• The cook readies your food. The waiter is provided your order to him alongside your table number.

• Cook then prepared food for you. He uses ingredients to prepares the food. Let’s assume that your order a vegetable sandwich. Then, at that point he needs bread, tomato, potato, capsicum, onion, bit, cheese, and so on which he sources from the refrigerator

• Cook last hand over the food to the waiter. Presently it is the job of the waiter to moves this food outside the kitchen.

• Now waiter knows which food you have ordered and how they are served.

In this MVC architecture example,

View= You
Waiter= Controller
Cook= Model
Refrigerator= Data

Let see one more MVC example,

Example 2:

Vehicle driving mechanism is another illustration of the MVC model.

• Every vehicle comprise of three primary parts.

• View= User interface : ( Gear lever, panels, steering wheel, brake, and so on)

• Controller-Mechanism ( Engine)

• Model-Storage ( Petrol or Diseal tank)

Vehicle runs from engine take fuel from storage, but it runs just using referenced UI gadgets.

Popular MVC web frameworks

Here, is a list of some popular MVC frameworks:

• Ruby on Rails




• CherryPy

Spring MVC


• Rails

• Zend Framework

• CodeIgniter

• Laravel

• Fuel PHP

• Symphony

Advantages of MVC: Key Benefits

Here, are significant advantages of using MVC architecture:

• Easy code maintenance simple to extend and develop

• Model-View-Controller Model segment can be tried separately from the client

• Easier support for new type of customers

• Development of the different segments can be performed parallelly.

• It assists you with staying away from intricacy by dividing an application into the three units. Model, view, and controller

• It just uses a Front Controller pattern which process web application request through a single controller.

• Offers the best support for test-driven development

• It functions admirably for Web applications which are supported by large teams of web designers and developers.

• Provides clean separation of concerns(SoC).

• Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Friendly.

• All classed and objects are independent of each other so that you can test them separately.

• MVC design pattern allows logical gathering of related activities on a controller together.

Disadvantages of using MVC

• Difficult to read, change, to unit test, and reuse this model

• The framework navigation would some be able to time perplexing as it presents new layers of abstraction which requires clients to adjust to the decomposition criteria of MVC.

• No formal approval support

• Increased intricacy and Inefficiency of data

• The trouble of using MVC with the advanced UI

• There is a requirement for various programmers to conduct parallel programming.

• Knowledge of various technologies is required.

• Maintenance of lots of codes in Controller

3-tier Architecture versus MVC Architecture

Parameter3-Tier ArchitectureMVC Architecture
CommunicationThis type of architecture pattern never communicates directly with the data layer.All layers communicate directly using triangle topology.
Usage3-tier: widely used in web applications where the client, data tiers, and middleware a run on physically separate platforms.Generally used on applications that run on a single graphical workstation.


• The MVC is an architectural example that separates an application into 1) Model, 2) View and 3) Controller

• Model: It incorporates all the data and its related logic

• View: Present data to the client or handles client interaction

• Controller: An interface among Model and View segments

• Model-View-Controller architecture first discussed in 1979 by Trygve Reenskaug

• Model-View-Controller architecture in Java is a profoundly testable, extensible and pluggable framework

• Some famous MVC frameworks are Rails, Zend Framework, CodeIgniter, Laravel, Fuel PHP, and so on


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Spiral Model: When to Use? Advantages & Disadvantages

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