In this tutorial, you will learn-

CSS Forms

CSS Forms: Fundamentally, forms are a very essential part of any website. It is an approach to take the user’s information and process requests. The forms offer controls for almost every use of an application. With the assistance of form controls and form fields, we can request a small as well as a large amount of information like user ID and password, billing information, job application, and so on


The look of an HTML form can be greatly improved with CSS:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<style>
input[type=text], select {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  display: inline-block;
  border: 1px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

input[type=submit] {
  width: 100%;
  background-color: #5271ff;
  color: white;
  padding: 14px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  border: none;
  border-radius: 4px;
  cursor: pointer;
}

input[type=submit]:hover {
  background-color: #1f628e;
}

div {
  border-radius: 5px;
  background-color: #f2f2f2;
  padding: 20px;
}
</style>
<body>

<h3>Using CSS to style an HTML Form</h3>

<div>
  <form action="/action_page.php">
    <label for="fname">First Name</label>
    <input type="text" id="fname" name="firstname" placeholder="Your name..">

    <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
    <input type="text" id="lname" name="lastname" placeholder="Your last name..">

    <label for="country">Country</label>
    <select id="country" name="country">
      <option value="pakistan">Pakistan</option>
      <option value="turkey">Turkey</option>
      <option value="china">China</option>
      <option value="india">India</option>
      <option value="england">England</option>
      <option value="canada">Canada</option>
      <option value="usa">USA</option>
    </select>
  
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">
  </form>
</div>

</body>
</html>



Styling Input Fields

Use the width property to decide the width of the input field:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input {
  width: 100%;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>A full-width input field</h2>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname">
</form>

</body>
</html>


The example above applies to all <input> elements. In the event that you just want to style a particular input type, you can use attribute selectors:

• input[type=text] – will just choose text fields

• input[type=password] – will just choose password fields

• input[type=number] – will just choose number fields

• etc..


Padded Inputs

Use the padding property to add space inside the text field.

Tip: When you have many inputs after each other, you may likewise want to add some margin, to add more space outside of them:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Padded input fields</h2>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname">
  <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname">
</form>

</body>
</html>


Note that we have set the box-sizing property to border-box. This ensures that the padding and eventually borders are included for the total width and height of the elements.


Bordered Inputs

Use the border property to change the border size and color, and use the border-radius property to add rounded corners:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 2px solid red;
  border-radius: 4px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Input fields with borders</h2>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname">
  <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname">
</form>

</body>
</html>


On the off chance that you just want a bottom border, use the border-bottom property:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: none;
  border-bottom: 2px solid red;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Input fields with bottom border</h2>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname">
  <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname">
</form>

</body>
</html>



Colored Inputs

Use the background-color property to add a background color to the input, and the color property to change the text color:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: none;
  background-color: #145da0;
  color: white;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Input fields with color</h2>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="Salman">
  <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Khan">
</form>

</body>
</html>



Focused Inputs

By default, some browsers will add a blue outline around the input when it gets focus (clicked on). You can eliminate this conduct by adding outline: none; to the input.

Use the :focus selector to do something with the input field when it gets focus:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 1px solid #555;
  outline: none;
}

input[type=text]:focus {
  background-color: lightblue;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Input fields with color on :focus</h2>

<p>Here, the input field gets a color when it gets focus (clicked on):</p>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="Salman">
  <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Khan">
</form>

</body>
</html>


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  margin: 8px 0;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 3px solid #ccc;
  -webkit-transition: 0.5s;
  transition: 0.5s;
  outline: none;
}

input[type=text]:focus {
  border: 3px solid #555;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Input fields with black border on :focus</h2>

<p>Here, the input field gets a black border color when it gets focus (clicked on). We have also added the CSS transition property to animate the border color (takes 0.5 seconds to change the color on focus):</p>

<form>
  <label for="fname">First Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="Salman">
  <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Khan">
</form>

</body>
</html>



Input with icon/image

If you want an icon inside the input, use the background-image property and position it with the background-position property. Likewise notice that we add a large left padding to reserve the space of the icon:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 100%;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 2px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  font-size: 16px;
  background-color: white;
  background-image: url('searchicon.png');
  background-position: 10px 10px; 
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  padding: 12px 20px 12px 40px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Input field with an icon inside</h2>

<form>
  <input type="text" name="search" placeholder="Search..">
</form>

</body>
</html>



Animated Search Input

In this example we use the CSS transition property to animate the width of the search input when it gets focus. You will learn more about the transition property later, in our CSS Transitions chapter.

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=text] {
  width: 130px;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 2px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  font-size: 16px;
  background-color: white;
  background-image: url('searchicon.png');
  background-position: 10px 10px; 
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  padding: 12px 20px 12px 40px;
  transition: width 0.4s ease-in-out;
}

input[type=text]:focus {
  width: 100%;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Animate width of search input</h2>

<form>
  <input type="text" name="search" placeholder="Search..">
</form>

</body>
</html>



Styling Textareas

Tip: Use the resize property to prevent textareas from being resized (disable the “grabber” in the bottom right corner):

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
textarea {
  width: 100%;
  height: 150px;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 2px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  background-color: #f8f8f8;
  font-size: 16px;
  resize: none;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Styling textarea</h2>

<p><strong>Tip:</strong> Use the resize property to prevent textareas from being resized (disable the "grabber" in the bottom right corner):</p>

<form>
  <textarea>Some text...</textarea>
</form>

</body>
</html>



Styling Select Menus

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
select {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 16px 20px;
  border: none;
  border-radius: 4px;
  background-color: #f1f1f1;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Styling a select menu</h2>

<form>
  <select id="country" name="country">
  <option value="pk">Pakistan</option>
      <option value="tr">Turkey</option>
      <option value="cn">China</option>
      <option value="in">India</option>
      <option value="uk">United Kingdom</option>
      <option value="ca">Canada</option>
      <option value="us">USA</option>
  </select>
</form>

</body>
</html>



Styling Input Buttons

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style> 
input[type=button], input[type=submit], input[type=reset] {
  background-color: #145da0;
  border: none;
  color: white;
  padding: 16px 32px;
  text-decoration: none;
  margin: 4px 2px;
  cursor: pointer;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Styling form buttons</h2>

<input type="button" value="Button">
<input type="reset" value="Reset">
<input type="submit" value="Submit">

</body>
</html>



Responsive Form

Resize the browser window to see the effect. At the point when the screen is under 600px wide, make the two columns stack on top of each other rather than of next to each other.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

input[type=text], select, textarea {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 12px;
  border: 1px solid #ccc;
  border-radius: 4px;
  resize: vertical;
}

label {
  padding: 12px 12px 12px 0;
  display: inline-block;
}

input[type=submit] {
  background-color: #145da0;
  color: white;
  padding: 12px 20px;
  border: none;
  border-radius: 4px;
  cursor: pointer;
  float: right;
}

input[type=submit]:hover {
  background-color: #45a049;
}

.container {
  border-radius: 5px;
  background-color: #f2f2f2;
  padding: 20px;
}

.col-25 {
  float: left;
  width: 25%;
  margin-top: 6px;
}

.col-75 {
  float: left;
  width: 75%;
  margin-top: 6px;
}

/* Clear floats after the columns */
.row:after {
  content: "";
  display: table;
  clear: both;
}

/* Responsive layout - when the screen is less than 600px wide, make the two columns stack on top of each other instead of next to each other */
@media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
  .col-25, .col-75, input[type=submit] {
    width: 100%;
    margin-top: 0;
  }
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Responsive Form</h2>
<p>Resize the browser window to see the effect. When the screen is less than 600px wide, make the two columns stack on top of each other instead of next to each other.</p>

<div class="container">
  <form action="/action_page.php">
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-25">
      <label for="fname">First Name</label>
    </div>
    <div class="col-75">
      <input type="text" id="fname" name="firstname" placeholder="Your name..">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-25">
      <label for="lname">Last Name</label>
    </div>
    <div class="col-75">
      <input type="text" id="lname" name="lastname" placeholder="Your last name..">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-25">
      <label for="country">Country</label>
    </div>
    <div class="col-75">
      <select id="country" name="country">
      <option value="pakistan">Pakistan</option>
      <option value="turkey">Turkey</option>
      <option value="china">China</option>
      <option value="india">India</option>
      <option value="england">England</option>
      <option value="canada">Canada</option>
      <option value="usa">USA</option>
      </select>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-25">
      <label for="subject">Subject</label>
    </div>
    <div class="col-75">
      <textarea id="subject" name="subject" placeholder="Write something.." style="height:200px"></textarea>
    </div>
  </div>
  <br>
  <div class="row">
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">
  </div>
  </form>
</div>

</body>
</html>



Thanks for reading! We hope you found this tutorial helpful and we would love to hear your feedback in the Comments section below. And show us what you’ve learned by sharing your projects with us.


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