Communication Media And Its Types
The means by which information is transmitted are called communication media. There are different media are used for Transmitting data from one place to another place.
The following are the two major types of communication media are:
- Cable communication media
- Wireless media
Cable communication media/ guided media
The cable is the medium of communication through which information usually moves from one device to another device within one Network or different network. There are several types of cable, which are commonly used for communication. The type of cable chosen for a network is depending on your topology, protocol, and size of the network.
Cable media consist of:
- Twisted pair cables.
- Coaxial cable.
- Fiber optic cables.
Twisted pair cables
Twisted pair cable consists of two independently insulated wires twisted around one another. The purpose of two wires twisted together is to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. Twisted pair cable is used in the telephone networks and also local aria computer networking at home and many companies. There is two types of twisted pair cable are available:
Shielded pair cable (STP)
Some time twisted-pair insolated with a special kind of copper surrounding the wires to protect the transmission.
Unshielded pair cable (UTP)
Unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP) consists of a number of twisted pairs with a simple plastic casing. This cable is commonly Use for local aria networking due to less expensive.
Characteristics of unshielded pair cable ( UTP )
- Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is very less expansive as compared to other transmission media.
- UTP cable is easy to install.
- UTP may support data rates from 1 to 155 MBPS. The most common rate is 10 MBPS.
- It is a thin, flexible cable that is easy to string between walls.
- Because UTP is small, it does not quickly fill up wiring ducts.c
- It will require direct P2P (peer to peer) connections, e.g. Straight from one computer to another (mostly via Ethernet or com)
- It will be incompatible if talking to more than 1 computer by going through a switch or hub.
Coaxial cable was invented in 1929 and first used on commercial basics in 1941. Coaxial cable consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then outer channel used as ground. The shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference. Coaxial cable is used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. This cable can carry information for a great distance.
- Coaxial cable is relatively inexpensive.
- Coaxial cable is simple as compared to other cables.
- Band with is up to 56 kbps
- Coaxial cable has a sufficient frequency range to support multiple channels, which allows for much greater throughput.
- Compared to twisted-pair, coax provides greater bandwidth system-wide, and it also offers greater bandwidth for each Channel. Because it has greater bandwidth per channel, it supports a mixed range of services. Voice, data, and even video And multimedia can benefit from the enhanced capacity.
- Because the inner conductor is in a Faraday shield, noise immunity is improved, and coax has lower error rates and Therefore slightly better performance than twisted-pair.
- More expensive than twisted pairs and is not supported for some network standards.
- It’s also very bulky and also has high attenuation so would have the need to implement repeaters etc.
- Along the length of the coaxial cable, part of the transmitted signal will be lost or attenuated.
- A small percent may escape the cable’s shielding and more will be converted to heat.
- The higher the frequency, the greater the losses.
- For very long-distance transmissions repeater stations are necessary for amplifying and retransmitting weakened signals.
Fiber optical cables
Fiber optical cable containing more than one optical glass that carries the signal in the shape of light. Each of the glass Is individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will Be deployed. Optical fiber transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This Makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. Optical fiber carries the information with greater Speeds.
Advantages of fiber optic
- Work with greater bandwidth and capacity
- The %age of loss of signal is very low.
- Immunity to electrical noise
- No crosstalk
- Difficult to tap
- Freedom from short circuit and sparks
- Reduced size and weight cables
- Safe form radiation and temperature variations.
- This cable is flexible
The disadvantages of fiber optic systems include problems with the relative newness of the technology, the relatively expensive Cost, and the lack of component and system standardization. However, these disadvantages are already being eliminated Because of increased use and acceptance of fiber optic technology.
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